Ca 408347

Sumerians control the lower part of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley.

Amorites ruled by Hammurabi, famous for his code of laws.

Beginning of the Assyrian Empire. Destruction of Nineveh and the Assyrian Empire. A solar eclipse, which modern science informs us took place on this date in what is now northern Turkey, brings an abrupt end to a battle between the Medes and the Lydians. Persians capture Babylon.

Persians under Xeres I capture and burn Athens. Socrates. Teacher of Plato.

Peloponnesian Wars between Athens and Sparta. Plato. His book the Republic contains the Allegory of the Cave regarding the nature of reality, and a discussion of how to do astronomy. Simplicius of Athens in his commentary on Aristotle's book On the Heavens wrote around 500 that Plato had set as a task for astronomers to explain the apparently irregular motions of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon as a combination of circular motions with constant speeds of rotation. Eudoxus. Student of Plato. Tried to save the phenomena of the planetary motions with a system of Earth-centered spheres rotating with constant speeds.

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