Gregorian calendar, based on computations using the Copernican system, introduced by Pope Gregory VIII.

Tycho Brahe completes his great mural quadrant at Uraniborg. It was forged of brass, 2 meters in radius, 13 millimeters broad, 5 millimeters thick, and marked in sixths of a minute. René Descartes. French philosopher and scientist. In his Discourse on the method of rightly conducting reason and seeking truth in the sciences, he had begun with the famous phrase "Cogito ergo sum" (I think, therefore I am) and then moved, one step at a time, to include the existence of God, the reality of the physical world, and its mechanistic nature. His universe consisting of huge whirlpools, or vortices, of cosmic matter presented a serious rival to Newton's worldview.

Publication of Kepler's Mysterium cosmographicum.

Tycho Brahe leaves Hven.

Tycho Brahe and Kepler united.

William Gilbert, royal physician to both Elizabeth I

and James I in England, publishes De magnete, his study of the magnet and magnetic bodies and that great magnet the Earth.

Publication of Kepler's Astronomia nova.

Rumor reaches Galileo of a device using pieces of curved glass to make distant objects on the Earth appear near.

Publication of Galileo's Starry Messenger. Galileo takes up residence in Florence as mathematician and philosopher to the grand duke, and also as chief mathematician of the University of Pisa, without obligation to teach. Galileo observes phases of Venus. John Donne's poem The Anatomy of the World refers to Christian morality as well as the physical locations of the Sun and the Earth in noting that the new philosophy called all in doubt and that the heirarchy of prince, subject, father, son, were overthrown.

Galileo begins a systematic study of sunspots. Publication of Galileo's Letters on Sunspots. John Napier, a Scottish nobleman, publishes Miri-fici logarithmorum canonis descriptio (Description of the Admirable Table of Logarithms) one of the most useful arithmetic concepts in all science.

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