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physics, brought together his ideas about science in a book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962). More than a million copies have been printed, in more than a dozen languages. It is the most influential book ever written on how science works.

Kuhn objected that science textbooks present science as a collection of facts, theories, and methods, and scientists as striving successfully to contribute a small bit to the ever-growing pile. The history of science in textbooks is linear and cumulative. Scientists of earlier ages are imagined working on the same problems and using the same methods as modern scientists do.

Such history of science leaves readers blind to everything but the current scientific perspective, blind especially to different ways of doing science in the past. A Kuhnian history of science, on the other hand, reveals unexpected discoveries subverting scientific traditions and leading scientists to new beliefs and new ways of doing science.

The historian of science Steve Brush (1974) has asked, tongue only partially in cheek, if it is safe to expose students to Kuhn's ideas. Will knowing that current scientific beliefs eventually will be overthrown and abandoned discourage students from studying current science? Should the history of science be X-rated?

Opponents of science conclude, from Kuhn's demonstration that personalities and politics play a role in science, that science and scientists are subjective and irrational. Not surprisingly, scientists object vehemently to such a characterization of themselves and their profession.

Kuhn's (1962) basic outline of how science works is summarized in five terms:

1. Normal science is the continuation of a research tradition. It seeks facts shown by theory to be of interest. The result is anticipated.

2. Paradigm is a universally recognized achievement temporarily providing model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners. Normal science is research based on a paradigm. Paradigms tell scientists about the entities that nature contains and about the ways in which these entities behave.

3. Anomaly is aviolation ofexpectation. It is adiscovery for which an investigator's paradigm has not prepared him or her. Normal science does not aim at novelties of fact or theory, but it does produce them.

4. Crisis occurs when an anomaly is judged worthy of concerted scrutiny yet continues to resist increased attention. A crisis follows repeated failures to make an anomaly conform. It demands large-scale paradigm destruction and major shifts in the problems and techniques of normal science. External social, economic, and intellectual conditions may also help transform an anomaly into a crisis.

5. Scientific revolution is an extraordinary episode. Scientific beliefs, values, and worldviews are abandoned. Ruling paradigms are replaced by incompatible new paradigms. Paradigm choice cannot be settled by logic and experiment. Neither political nor scientific revolutions can be resolved within existing rules. Revolutionary differences inevitably end in attempts at mass persuasion, often including force.

Kuhn's picture of science is evolutionary. It is not, however, evolution toward something in particular. It is not toward what we might think we want to know, nor toward some ultimately true understanding of the universe. Rather, it is evolution away from what we do know. Kuhn's understanding of the nature of science denies progress in the sense of a historical movement in a particular desirable direction. Rather, he sees science changing and evolving, but in no particular direction. The denial of scientific progress toward an ultimate truth may be the most revolutionary of Kuhn's ideas.

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