tial elements in his sculptural kissing couple, who represent an ideal.

Thomas Kuhn. Historian of science. He questioned the common notion of scientific progress as a clean, rational advance along a straight, ascending line; and he shattered the reassuring vision of cumulative and progressive science with his 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, one of the most exciting books ever written about science. Some radicals have seized on the book as a platform from which to oppose all cognitive authority. Scientists have objected vehemently to Kuhn's demonstration that personalities and politics play a role in science. Kuhn denies that there exists one full, objective, true account of nature, or that scientific achievement can be measured in terms of how close it brings us to truth. Gerald Holton. Physicist and historian of science. For Holton, science is not so much a collection of facts, but rather is characterized by scientists thinking about and wrestling with problems. He tries to determine what observations and theories a scientist was confronted with in his own era, the state of shared scientific knowledge in that particular place and time, the creative insight that guided the scientist, and possible connections between the scientist's scientific work and his lifestyle, sociological setting, and cultural milieu.

Publication of Arthur Koestler's The Sleepwalkers. Publication of Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

Robert Newton, a geophysicist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, publishes The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy, in which he argues that Ptolemy was the most successful fraud in the history of science, and that the Almagest did more damage to astronomy than any other work ever written.

Pope John Paul II acknowledges that Galileo's theology was sounder than that of the judges who condemned him.

The pope sets up a special committee to reexamine the Galileo case, and offers an official apology for Galileo's sentence.

a. d. 1994 1996 1999 2002

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