by Hipparchus reveals that in the course of 1,800 years several of the supposedly fixed stars have altered their places relative to other stars. Immanuel Kant. German philosopher. In his Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens, Kant attempted to extend Newtonian philosophy, as is indicated in the subtitle of the manuscript: An Essay on the Constitution and Mechanical Origin of the Whole Universe Treated According to Newton's Principles. Kant's manuscript perished in his printers' bankruptcy, and his cosmological ideas were not published until 1763, and then only in an appendix of another book.

Death of Isaac Newton. Alexander Pope's famous epitaph reads: "Nature and Nature's Laws lay hid at Night; God said Let Newton be! and All was Light" (Feingold, Newtonian Moment, 144). The Swiss mathematician Johann Bernoulli wins a prize from the Académie des Sciences for his essay on the causes of elliptical orbits in a Cartesian vortex.

Publication of Voltaire's Lettres philosophiques, also known as Lettres anglaises, or Letters Concerning the English Nation.

Publication of Voltaire's Elémens de la philosophie de Newton (Elements of Newton's Philosophy). Maupertuis returns to Paris with measurements supporting Newton and refuting Descartes. Maupertuis publicly declares his allegiance to Newtonian cosmology because of the failure of Cartesians to reconcile vortex theory with Kepler's mathematical laws of planetary motion. Pierre-Simon Laplace. French mathematician, physicist, and celestial mechanic. Completed the Newtonian program of accounting for planetary motions as due to an inverse square force of gravity. The self-taught English astronomer Thomas Wright proposes as a model for the Milky Way a luminous band of light circling the heavens. Kant, inspired by an incorrect summary of Wright's book and by the paradigm of the Newtonian solar system, explains that the Milky Way is a disk-shaped system seen from the Earth located in the plane of the disk. Furthermore, nebulous patches of light in the Heavens are composed of stars and are other

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