Primary Sources

Aristotle, De caelo, J. L. Stocks, trans., in W. D. Ross, ed., The Works of Aristotle, vol. 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930), reprinted, with mild emendations, in Jonathan Barnes, ed., The Complete Works of Aristotle, vol. I (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). In On the Heavens Aristotle develops ideas raised in his Physics.

Aristotle, Metaphysics; newly translated as a postscript to natural science, with an analytical index of technical terms, by Richard Hope (New York: Columbia University Press, 1952).

Aristotle, Physica, in Aristotle's Physics newly translated by Richard Hope with an Analytical Index of Technical Terms (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1961). Aristotle's physics dominated scientific thought in the Western world for nearly two thousand years.

Copernicus, Nicholas, Commentariolus, in Edward Rosen, ed., Three Coper-nican Treatises: The Commentariolus of Copernicus, The Letter against Werner, and the Narratio Prima of Rheticus (New York: Dover Publications, 1939); Second Edition, Revised, with an Annotated Copernicus Bibliography 1939-1958 (New York: Dover Publications, 1959). See also Noel Swerdlow, "The Derivation and First Draft of Copernicus' Planetary Theory: A Translation of the Commentariolus with Commentary," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 117 (1973), 423-512. Copernicus's early astronomical thoughts, in English translation and with extensive notes.

-, De revolutionibus orbium caelestium. Copernicus's great work of 1543

on the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. The preface and book I are conveniently available in English translation in Michael J. Crowe, Theories of the World from Antiquity to the Copernican Revolution (New York: Dover

Publications, Inc., 1990). Crowe selected his excerpts from On the Revolutions: Nicholas Copernicus; translation and commentary by Edward Rosen (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978). Much of the preface and book 1 are also presented and commented extensively upon in Thomas Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1957). Kuhn took his passages from De Revolutionibus, preface and book I, John F. Dobson, trans., assisted by Selig Brodetsky (London: Royal Astronomical Society, 1947), originally printed as Occasional Notes, no. 10, May 1947. Other English translations of Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium caelestium include On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, Charles Glenn Wallis, trans., in Great Books of the Western World, vol. 16: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1939; Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1993); and On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; A New Translation from the Latin, with an Introduction and Notes by A.M. Duncan iNewton Abbot: David & Charles, 1976; New York: Barnes & Noble, 1976). See also As the World Turned: A Reader on the Progress of the Heliocentric Argument from Copernicus to Galileo. [http:// math.dartmouth.edu/~matc/Readers/renaissance.astro/0.intro.html.] Contains excerpts from Nicholas Copernicus, De Revolutionibus; John Dee, The Mathematicall Praeface; Robert Recorde, The Castle of Knowledge; Marcellus Palingenius Stellatus, The Zodiake of Life; Giordano Bruno, The Ash Wednesday Supper; and Galileo Galilei, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.

Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de, Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes, in English translation with a useful introduction, notes, and bibliography in Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds, translation by H. A. Hargreaves, Introduction by Nina Rattner Gelbert (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990). Fontenelle imagined evening promenades in a garden with a lovely young marquise discussing that the Moon was inhabited, that the planets were also inhabited, and that the fixed stars were other suns, each giving light to their own worlds.

Galilei, Galileo, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems—Ptolemaic & Copernican. Translated, with revised notes, by Stillman Drake, foreword by Albert Einstein, second edition (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967). See also Maurice A. Finocchiaro, Galileo on the World Systems (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997). The Dialogue plus texts related to Galileo's famous trial are available online in English translation at http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/galileo/galileo.html. Excerpts from the Dialogue are also available in As the World Turned: A Reader on the Progress of the Heliocentric Argument from Copernicus to Galileo [http://math.dartmouth.edu/-matc/Readers/renaissance.astro/0. intro.html]. It contains excerpts from Nicholas Copernicus, De Revolution-ibus; John Dee, The Mathematicall Praeface; Robert Recorde, The Castle of Knowledge; Marcellus Palingenius Stellatus, The Zodiake of Life;

Giordano Bruno, The Ash Wednesday Supper; and Galileo Galilei, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.

-, Sidereus nuncius. Galileo's telescopic discoveries in his Starry Messenger of 1610, his 1613 letters on sunspots, and his Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of 1615 discussing the relationship between science and religion are available in English translation in Stillman Drake, Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo, translated with an introduction and notes by Stillman Drake (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1957). See also Albert van Helden, Sidereus Nuncius or The Sidereal Messenger Galileo Galilei. Translated with introduction, conclusion, and notes by Albert van Helden (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), which contains a good bibliography and discussion of Galileo's discovery of the phases of Venus.

Kepler, Johannes, Astronomia nova. The New Astronomy of 1609 is available in English translation in William H. Donahue, translator, New Astronomy / Johannes Kepler (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

-, Epitome astronomiae Copernicanae. Books IV and V ofthe Epitome of

Copernican Astronomy of 1617—1621 are available in English translation in Charles Glenn Wallis, trans., The Harmonies of the World: V, in Great Books of the Western World, vol. 16: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1939); reprinted in Epitome of Copernican Astronomy & Harmonies of the World (Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 1991).

-, Harmonices mundi. The Harmonies of the World of 1619 is available in English translation in The Harmony of the World / by Johannes Kepler; translated into English with an introduction and notes by E. J. Aiton, A. M. Duncan, and J. V. Field (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1997; Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 209). Book V is also available in Charles Glenn Wallis, trans., The Harmonies of the World: V, in Great Books of the Western World, vol. 16: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1939); reprinted in Epitome of Copernican Astronomy & Harmonies of the World (Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 1991).

-, Mysterium cosmographicum. The Cosmic Mystery of 1596 is available in English translation in Mysterium Cosmographicum = The Secret of the Universe (New York: Abaris Books, 1981) by A.M. Duncan, trans., introduction and commentary by E. J. Aiton; with a preface by I. Bernard Cohen.

Newton, Isaac, Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. Among many English translations of the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy of 1686 are the following: Mathematical principles of natural philosophy and his system of the world by Sir Isaac Newton; translated into English by Andrew Motte in 1729. The translation revised and supplied with an historical and explanatory appendix, by Florian Cajori (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1946); Great Books of the Western World, vol. 34 (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1955); S. Chandrasekhar, Newton's Principia for the Common Reader (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); Newton's Principia: the Central Argument: Translation, notes, and expanded proofs by Dana Densmore; Translations and diagrams by William H. Donahue (Santa Fe, New Mexico: Green Lion Press, 1996); The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. By Isaac Newton; A new translation by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman assisted by Julia Budenz; Preceded by a Guide to Newton's Principia by I. Bernard Cohen (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999). All of Newton's books published in his lifetime in Latin, English, and French are available online at: http://dibinst.mit.edu/BURNDY/Collections/Babson/Online-Newton/OnlineNewton.htm.

Plato, Epistles. In Glenn Morrow, Plato's Epistles: A Translation, with Critical Essays and Notes, revised edition (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1962). Contains Plato's letter "VII: To the Friends and Followers of Dion" with some of the difficulties Plato encountered in his eventful life, and also his definition of a circle. The letter's authenticity is not certain: see Morrow, "The Question of Authenticity," ibid., pp. 3-6; and Paul Friedlander, Plato: I An Introduction, second edition, with revisions, translated by Hans Meyerhoff (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969; Bollingen Series LIX), pp. 236-245.

-, Republic. In Francis MacDonald Cornford, The Republic of Plato

(New York: Oxford University Press, 1945). Contains Plato's Allegory of the Cave, which examines the nature of reality, and Plato's comments on the study of astronomy, which follow from his conception of reality. See Gregory Vlastos, "Degrees of Reality in Plato," in R. Bambrough, ed., New Essays on Plato and Aristotle (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965), 1-19; Vlastos, "The Role of Observation in Plato's Conception of Astronomy," in J. Anton, ed., Science and the Sciences in Plato (New York: Caravan Books, 1980), pp. 1-30; Norriss S. Hetherington, "Plato and Eudoxus: Instrumentalists, Realists, or Prisoners of Themata?," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 27 (1996), 271-289; Hetherington, "Plato's Place in the History of Greek Astronomy: Restoring both History and Science to the History of Science," Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 2 (1999), 87-110. This study examines Plato's philosophical vision and its influence on ancient science, and also casts new light on the long-standing debate over whether ancient Greek astronomers were instrumentalists or realists

Ptolemy, Almagest. In Great Books of the Western World, vol. 16 (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1952), R. Catesby Taliaferro, trans. Also available in English translation in G. J. Toomer, Ptolemy's Almagest (London: Duckworth, 1984; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984). See also Toomer's encyclopedic entry "Hipparchus," in C. C. Gillispie, ed., Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol. 15 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1978), pp. 207-234. Scholars have generally accepted Toomer's harsh criticism of Taliaferro's translation and replaced it with Toomer's translation in their analyses, with gains perhaps in clarity and consistency but not in substantive conclusions. On internal inconsistencies in Ptolemy's system and why the Copernican revolution was so long delayed, see Norriss S. Hetherington and Colin Ronan, "Ptolemy's Almagest: Fourteen Centuries of Neglect," Journal for the British Astronomical Association, 94:6 (October 1984), 256-262.

Rheticus, Narratio Prima. The first published account, by a young German professor of mathematics, Rheticus, of part of Copernicus's De revolutioni-bus. In English translation and with extensive notes, in Edward Rosen, ed., Three Copernican Treatises: The Commentariolus of Copernicus, The Letter against Werner, and the Narratio Prima of Rheticus (New York: Dover Publications, 1939); Second Edition, Revised, with an Annotated Copernicus Bibliography 1939-1958 (New York: Dover Publications, 1959).

Simplicius of Athens, Commentary on Aristotle's On the Heavens. Simplicius's description of the problem that Plato set for astronomers is available in Pierre Duhem, To Save the Phenomena: An Essay on the Idea of Physical Theory from Plato to Galileo, translated by E. Doland and C. Maschler (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969). Simplicius's description of the failure of Eudoxus's theory to save the phenomena is available in Thomas Heath, Aristarchus of Samos: The Ancient Copernicus. A History of Greek Astronomy to Aristarchus together with Aristarchus's Treatise on the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon. A New Greek Text with Translation and Notes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913; New York: Dover Publications, 1981), pp. 221-223. Some scholars doubt Simplicius's authority and question Plato's putative role in the development of planetary theory: Bernard R. Goldstein and Alan C. Bowen, "A New View of Early Greek Astronomy," Isis, 74 (1983), 330-340; reprinted in Goldstein, Theory and Observation in Ancient and Medieval Astronomy (London: Variorum Reprints, 1985), pp. 1-11. Regarding the extent to which Eudoxus was beholden to Plato for the essential principle of his astronomical scheme, perhaps Plato envisioned oscillating motions for the planets and it was only later commentators who saw adumbrations of later astronomical models in Plato's earlier cosmological accounts: Wilbur R. Knorr, "Plato and Eudoxus on the Planetary Motions," Journal for the History of Astronomy, 21 (1990), 313-329; and "Plato's Cosmology," in Norriss S. Hetherington, ed., Encyclopedia of Cosmology: Historical, Philosophical, and Scientific Foundations of Modern Cosmology (New York: Garland Publishing, 1993), pp.499-502.

Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Edinburgh: 1776), available in many printed editions and online at http://www.adamsmith.org/smith/won-intro.htm. As Newton's Principia changed understanding of the physical world and Darwin's Origin of Species changed understanding of the biological world, so Smith's Wealth of Nations changed understanding of the economic world. For how Smith's work was inspired by Newton's, see Norriss S. Hetherington, "Isaac Newton and Adam Smith: Intellectual Links Between Natural Science and Economics," in Paul Theerman and Adele F. Seeff, Action and Reaction: Proceedings of a Symposium to Commemorate the Tercentenary of Newton's Principia (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1993), pp. 277-291.

Theon of Smyrna, Expositio rerum mathematicarum ad legendum Platonem utilium. A handbook of citations from earlier sources on arithmetic, music, and astronomy intended to provide an exposition of mathematical subjects useful for the study of Plato. Excerpts with regard to the equivalence of the eccentric and epicyclic hypotheses are available in Pierre Duhem, To Save the Phenomena: An Essay on the Idea of Physical Theory from Plato to Galileo, translated by E. Doland and C. Maschler (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), pp. 8-11.

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