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Quarks are the building blocks of protons and neutrons, and lepton is a common name for a group of particles including the electron and the neutrino. The strong interaction is the force holding the atomic nucleus together, despite the repulsion between the positively charged protons. The weak interaction is responsible for radioactive decay of nuclei by conversion of neutrons to protons (P decay). The strong and weak interactions are short-ranged and are only important within the atomic nucleus.

Both the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions depend on the inverse distance between the particles, and are therefore of infinite range. The electromagnetic interaction occurs between all charged particles, while the gravitational interaction occurs between all particles with a mass, and they have the same overall functional form.

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