References

Jozefowski, B. deBeauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Ne, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960 (1999) M. Niering, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, P. Pokasov, Th. Udem, M. Weitz, T. W. Hansch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, M. Abgrall, P. Laurent, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, ibid 84, 5496 (2000). 2 D. Kleppner, M. G. Littman, and M. L. Zimmerman, Sci. Am. 244 (5), 130 (1981). 3 V. I. Korbov, Phys. Rev. A 61, 064503 (2000). 4 U. Fano and A. R. P. Rau, Atomic...

Eooo e22ao In2 V2a0p

This expression is readily understood. As in any Coulomb problem, (e2 2a0) is the basic dimensional unit of energy. A one-dimensional Coulomb potential has a logarithmic enhancement of this value, z being logarithmically singular upon integration over dz. The potential in (4.55) is not actually singular because of the cut-off which, therefore, occurs in the argument of the logarithm, the ratio of Bohr radius to cyclotron radius expressing the departure from one-dimensionality of hydrogen in an...

Info

The description developed in this section gives a good first picture of the motion associated with the nuclear degrees of freedom in a diatomic molecule. Rotations in space of the internuclear axis and thereby of the molecule, and vibrations about the equilibrium distance, are described by the discrete spectra of a rotor and a harmonic oscillator, respectively, with their characteristic spacings given in (6.9) and (6.16). Together with potential wells for increasing electronic excitation, the...

O

Co2 Laser Energy Level Diagram

Three vibrational modes of H2O Figure 7.3. Three vibrational modes of H2O electronic Schr dinger equation which provides the equilibrium configuration and energy Ue and also departures from that in the form Often the equilibrium configuration and coordinates qi can be defined in terms of the bond lengths and bond angles. Thus, for the pyramidal NH3 molecule with N 4, the six coordinates may be chosen as the three N-H band lengths Ri, R2, R3 and the three HNH bond angles so that + ka...

V2i I Ii

And a similar set for the and states. We have used here a standard spectroscopic notation for multi-electron states, the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L of the electrons denoted as The 2 in front is used in helium for describing the quantum number of the outer electron in such singly-excited states. In evaluating the expectation value of H in (1.17) with the wave functions (1.22), the spins play no further role, the non-relativistic Hamilto-nian containing no spin dependence...

Polyatomic Molecules

The diatomic molecules considered in Chapter 6 are the major constituents and have the dominant role in astronomically relevant molecular physics. However, many more complex molecules, starting with the triatomic H and II3, H20, C02, and CS2, and continuing to very large organic molecules, also have important roles and will be the object of our study in this chapter. Many of the basic ideas have already been introduced in the previous chapter and we will focus on the additional specific...

Coulomb potential and hyperspherical harmonics in six dimensions

The two-electron Schrodinger equation is not separable either in the independent-electron coordinates (r1 r2) or in the hyperspherical coordinates R,R). Had the a and > 12 dependent terms in (5.7) shared the same dependence on i , or had the coefficient C(a,0i2) been independent of angles, then the problem would have separated in hyperspherical coordinates. Indeed, in the latter case, (5.7) would have been a six-dimensional Coulomb problem of fixed nuclear charge C, a higher-dimensional...

Nh3 hcn h2co ch3oh c2h5oh ch3sh c3n hc5n hncs

Indeed hcnn (n 5, 7, 9, 11) were unfamiliar in the laboratory but seen in radio astronomy. Similarly, ethynyl has not been studied in its gas phase in the laboratory whereas astronomical data has given its rotational, spin-doubling, and hyperfine constants. The J 0 1 transition in HCN at 87 GHz and six transitions with AK 0 and J 5 * 6in ch3cn at 110GHz, hco+at 89.2GHz,and n2H+ at 93.2 GHz are examples of prominent lines in radio astronomy. Negative ions of interest are OjjNOj, and...

Df 7vh2dkjipipf and thereby

Where v is the incident velocity of the projectile, the integral is conveniently performed over kjt. Its kinematically allowed limits follow from (hkfi)2 p + p - 2pipf cos 6 and the energy conservation relation (2.32). Here, the behavior of the kfl > 0 limit proves decisive. For optically allowed transitions, wherein this approaches a constant ,-, the total cross-section a increases logarithmically with the incident energy of the projectile, where C Jis a numerical constant. For optically...

P

Since p Llm(p) is sharply peaked at pm. Such a potential (4.58) has the same spectrum as discussed in the previous paragraph, with p replaced by Pm- Fig- 4.11 provides a sketch. Similar Coulomb energy levels are built on other excited Landau levels of non-zero np and positive ra, these themselves huc apart. All these levels are not strictly bound, since they overlap with continuum states on the lowest Landau level so that they can decay into such states. This is the phenomenon of autoionization...

Ab

Figure 3-4- Diagram for third-order energy correction, representing the two terms in (3.8). to orders beyond one hundred 21 and so also the diamagnetic Zeeman effect to very high order (Section 4.3.2). In certain contexts, one also sums to very high order the contribution of a subset of diagrams that are deemed as dominant. An example is provided by the diagrams in Fig. 3.3, Fig. 3.4(a), and higher members of the sequence, each with an additional interaction line inserted always on the upward...