World War Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. More here...

Alive after the Fall Review Summary

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4.8 stars out of 49 votes

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Author: Alexander Cain
Price: $49.00

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My Alive after the Fall Review Review

Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

World War II and its aftermath

Even before formal hostilities began in the Second World War, Shapley focused some of his boundless energy on helping European scholars who lost their university posts because they were Jewish or held unpopular political opinions. As part of his agitation on behalf of refugees, Shapley sat on the executive committee of the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars. This organization formed in May 1933 in New York City with the aim of finding new positions in the United States for professors at German universities, and later expanded its scope to include all Western Europe. The Committee met the needs of 335 displaced scholars, out of about 6000 who asked for assis-tance.61 Shapley noted in his memoir that about 100 ''rescues'' went through his office.62

World War I

Early in 1914, the Kapteyns were saddened by the loss of their good friend Gill, who died in London after a short illness. It was, as Henrietta Kapteyn-Hertzsprung remarked, the sad beginning to a disastrous year. When World War I broke out in the summer, Elise and Kapteyn were at Mount Wilson, and were too fearful of crossing the Atlantic to go home as planned. They stayed on the American continent until January 1915, worrying about the situation at home. Meanwhile, Kapteyn, maintaining a neutral Dutch outlook on the politics of the war, incurred the enmity of some of his colleagues by accepting a prestigious scientific award from the German Kaiser.

A series of German rockets

A family of liquid-propellant rockets built by Nazi Germany immediately before and during World War II. With the A (Aggregate) rockets came technology that could be used either to bomb cities or to begin the exploration of space. Key to this development was Wernher von Braun and his team of scientists and engineers. The series began with the small A-1, which, in common with all of the A rockets, used alcohol as a fuel and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer. Built and tested mostly on the ground at Kummersdorf, it enabled various design problems to be identified. A reconfigured version, known as the A-2, made two successful flights in December 1934 from the North Sea island of Borkum, reaching a height of about 2 km. The development effort then shifted to Peenem nde. In 1937, the new A-3 rocket was launched from an island in the Baltic Sea. Measuring 7.6 m in length and weighing 748 kg, it was powered by an engine that produced 14,700 newtons (N) of thrust. Three flights were made, none...

Aberdeen Proving Ground

Army's oldest active proving ground. It was established on October 20, 1917, six months after the United States entered World War I, as a facility where ordnance materiel could be designed and tested close to the nation's industrial and shipping centers. Aberdeen Proving Ground occupies more than 29,000 hectares in Harford County, Maryland, and is home to the Ballistic Research Laboratory, where, during the 1950s and early 1960s, important work was done on integrating electronic computers, space studies, and satellite tracking.

Brief History of Discovery

The first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957. While this was a momentous event in human history, the beginnings of space science preceded the launch of Sputnik 1 by about a decade, and employed sub-orbital 'sounding rockets'. The earliest of these were captured German V2 rockets developed during World War II, and the sounding rocket programme achieved numerous successes, including mapping the upper atmosphere and discovering X-ray emission from the Sun.

Detection and Characterization of Extrasolar Planets

The search for extrasolar planets has a long and checkered history (see e.g., Boss 1998a for an easily readable overview). Because of the enormous brightness contrast between planets and their parent stars, the direct detection of planets by taking images of the vicinity of nearby stars would be extremely difficult. Early searches for planets were therefore mostly carried out with the astrometric method, which seeks to detect the motion of the star around the center of mass of the star-planet system (see Sect. 9). First reports on the detection of massive planets 10 Mjup) were published during World War II (Strand 1943 Reuyl and Holmberg 1943), but remained controversial, both with regards to the reality of the results and to the question whether the detected bodies should be called planets. Much painstaking work over the next few decades lead to the realization that these detections were spurious. Continued improvements in the astrometric accuracy finally culminated in the...

What Is Space Technology And Where Did It Come From

However, the mid-twentieth-century pathway into space was neither simple nor free from conflict. For example, the liquid-propellant rocket, invented by Robert Goddard in 1926, emerged from World War II as a novel, but deadly, weapon the German V-2 rocket. A powerful new pay-load, the nuclear weapon warhead, also emerged from World War II. The combination (a long-range, nuclear-armed rocket) became the major instrument of superpower confrontation during the Cold War. Throughout this period of intense political tension between the United States and the former Soviet Union, space-exploration achievements directly reflected national prestige and power. Nowhere was this competition more intensely portrayed than during the Cold War race to land human explorers on the Moon, the so-called Moon race. Fortunately, the extensive military and politically motivated investments in space technology also produced an unanticipated bonus. The period from about 1960 to 1989 is often called the first...

Rocketplanes at the Airport

Rocketplanes have been around far longer than many of us groundlings may realize. German rocket gliders were flying in the 1920s, and winged space-bombers have been on the drawing boards since the 1930s. Both rocketplanes and winged rockets were flown during World War II, and rocket-research aircraft flew from the late 1940s until the mid-1970s. Rocket-powered lifting bodies flew in the 1960s and 1970s, gathering much needed aeronautical data. All of these efforts led directly to the US Space Shuttle, which since 1981 has flown over 120 missions into low Earth orbit, each time landing on a runway as a real spaceplane. The latest working example of a real spaceplane is SpaceShipOne, which flew several suborbital missions in 2004 above the 100-km magic altitude of space. The idea of using a winged vehicle to gain access to space shows no signs of stalling out. The vehicles themselves have had their share of mishaps, to be sure, but the idea flies on.

The Hertzsprung Russell Diagram

4 Karl Schwartzschild is known for laying the foundation of the theory of black holes, demonstrating that bodies of sufficient mass would have an escape velocity exceeding the speed of light. In one of the many tragedies of World War I, Schwartzschild died of illness in the trenches while fighting as an infantry soldier.

The dream takes shape

While much of the groundwork for modern rocketry was laid in Russia and America, it was in Germany that the idea of space travel really took hold. In the early 20th century, visionaries planted the seeds that would ultimately give rise to the rocketry programs of the Second World War. Germany's equivalent of Goddard and Tsiolkovskii was without doubt Hermann Oberth. While Goddard had been inspired by Wells, Oberth's interest in space travel was fired by reading Verne's From the Earth to the Moon at the age of 11, and within a few years he was making his own model rockets. Though he initially trained to be a doctor at his father's behest, harsh experience as a medic in the trenches of the First World War prompted him to follow his interest in physics. However, he failed to gain a doctorate from the University of Heidelberg, largely because his dissertation explored physiological and medical aspects of rocket travel in which his physicist supervisor had no grounding. Rather than revise...

So What Is Radio Astronomy

One of the earliest post-World War II discoveries in radio astronomy was that specific regions of the sky seemed to emit more radio energy than their surroundings. These were given the generic name of radio source. Whenever a larger radio telescope or more sensitive radio receiver was used, more radio sources were discovered. Today tens to thousands of radio sources are known.

American Rocketplanes

With new airframe designs being developed for the more powerful jet engines, the years following World War II became a Golden Age for the rocketplane. The epicenter of rocketplane research was Edwards Air Force Base, California. Unlike the strictly subsonic German rocket gliders, the new American vehicles were built for supersonic speeds and high-altitude research. Their goal was to test the limits of aeronautics at those speeds and altitudes, and to test the handling characteristics not only at those limits but throughout the entire flight envelope.

At first Walter Dornberger struggled to convince the German Army that rockets could be a practical weapon But with a

The VfR chose the right man when they approached Walter Dornberger about potential funding in 1932. A veteran of the First World War who had studied physics for several years, he was in charge of a small weapons-testing facility at West Kummersdorf. Dornberger was a strong advocate of the idea that rockets could be used as ballistic missiles - burning their engines to the peak of their flight path, and then descending on a trajectory similar to that of any other projectile. The first person to suggest such an application had been French rocket enthusiast Robert Esnault-Pelterie in the late 1920s, but he had been unable to interest the French military in the proposal.

Modern Rockets As Weapons Of War 19391956

As war loomed in the 1930s, the military provided the impetus for further advances in rocketry. During World War II, the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan, the United Kingdom, and other combatant nations produced rockets and guided missiles of all sizes and shapes. However, it was Germany that made the most significant advances in rocket research. At the end of World War II, another new technology emerged that also had a major impact on the evolution of rocketry. On July 16, 1945, the United States successfully detonated the world's first nuclear explosion. While the use of the atom bomb against Japan helped bring World War II in the Pacific to a dramatic conclusion, its creation and military use also plunged a rapidly polarizing world into a nuclear arms race that dominated geopolitics for the entire Cold War era. Following World War II, American and Soviet leaders ignored the inspirational space-travel visions of Goddard, Tsiolkovsky, and Oberth and chose instead to encourage a...

Postwar Years Radar Everywhere

During the later phases of the war, radar antennas in south England had been pointed just above the horizon to detect incoming V2 rockets, and in the process they accidentally picked up echoes from meteor showers. As meteors burn up in the atmosphere they produce ionized trails, which reflect radar signals. This discovery interested Bernard Lovell, of the University of Manchester, who was searching for similar echoes from the trails left by cosmic rays striking the atmosphere. As a pioneer in World War II aircraft radar development, Lovell had access to surplus radar equipment, which the University allowed him to park at their botany research station at Jodrell Bank, south of Manchester. (A peculiar coincidence Jansky lived in a town called Red Bank, New Jersey Lovell set up shop at Jodrell Bank, England the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory is located at Green Bank, West Virginia. This surfeit of banks in radio astronomy locations has still no reflection on the profession's...

Terror from the skies

At Kohnstein the US troops discovered a huge complex carved out ol the soft gypsum rock. In the early years of the Second World War the complex was used as a store for fuel and poison gas. Most prisoners who died at Mittelwerk had perished in the first few months of heavy labour. At Kohnstein the US troops discovered a huge complex carved out ol the soft gypsum rock. In the early years of the Second World War the complex was used as a store for fuel and poison gas. Most prisoners who died at Mittelwerk had perished in the first few months of heavy labour.

European Space Case Study

The multicultures of modern Europe have been developing a space ethos for centuries in their art, science, and literature. The early dreamers of space travel came from Europe (e.g., Italy's inventive artist, Michelangelo France's science fiction writer, Jules Verne and Romania's mathematician, Hermann Oberth). The drawings and writings of such visionaries inspired generations of future space scientists and engineers worldwide, but especially in Germany where rocket pioneering abounded in the first half of the 20th century. Europe's entry into the Space Age occurred in World War II, with the negative impact of missiles from Peenemunde on a devastated England. However, with their minds on the Moon, many of the German rocket scientists there under Wernher von Braun were transformed from war to peace by being absorbed into either the American or Russian space programs 34 . Since 1958, Western European nations have collaborated, originally through the European Launch Development...

An Introduction To The History Of Science

The ideal of cumulative, systematized positive knowledge is psychologically comforting. It was especially so in the immediate aftermath of World War I and the destruction of European civilization. Only science among all human activities survived that war with its good reputation intact. Even music, in which Germany excelled over all other nations, was found wanting for having failed to civilize its practitioners. Science was praised as the only truly cumulative and progressive human activity. The history of science was believed to be the only history illustrating the progress of humankind.

Who Could Have Guessed

After the World War II, Enrico Fermi proposed that cosmic ray electrons could be accelerated in interstellar space, provided magnetic fields were present, but it wasn't until 1951 that evidence for such fields was obtained through the observation of the polarization of starlight by dust grains aligned by those fields. Later, when supernova remnants (the remains of exploded stars) were recognized to be strong sources of radio waves and when their polarization was measured, astronomers did realize that cosmic rays originated in supernovae. (Polarization refers to a

The life of Fort Bliss

The chief role for the group was to advise on the reconstruction and test-firing of the captured V-2s at the nearby White Sands range in the New Mexico desert and to help interpret the wealth of paperwork containing the secrets of the German rocket programme. By this time, there was another important factor driving the development of ballistic missiles - the devastating explosions over Japanese cities that had finally ended the Second World War in the Pacific had also heralded a new era of atomic warfare. The Soviets would now be racing to develop their own nuclear weapons, and while the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs had been dropped from aircraft, it was clear that if the United States was to maintain its military superiority, the delivery system of choice would be a continent-spanning supersonic missile armed with a nuclear warhead. Indeed, the desire of the superpowers to demonstrate superior

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIAA

York City in 1930 by David Lasser, G. Edward Pendray, Fletcher Pratt, and others, and it changed its name four years later. The IAS started in 1932 as the Institute of Aeronautical Science, with Orville Wright as its first honorary member, and substituted Aerospace in its title in 1960. AIAA and its founding societies have been at the forefront of the aerospace profession from the outset, beginning with the launch of a series of small experimental rockets before World War II based on designs used by the Verein f r Raumschiffahrt (German Society for Space Travel).

Psycuo LogicaL and SociaL Motives

The great philosophers and scientists who envisioned our movement into space considered it a natural, evolutionary step, a way to become better off. Many of the German scientists who worked on the V-2 military rocket used to bombard London in World War II had their sights set on the stars. Hermann Oberth foresaw a two-pronged approach to fulfilling our destiny outward migration of humans into space and eventual contact with intelligent beings from other worlds.23 Marsha Freeman stresses the work of Krafft A. Ehricke, a German rocket pioneer who arrived in the United States along with Wernher von Braun shortly after World War II. 24 His theory of astronautics, whose origins lie in the Renaissance, posits that our greatest limits are those that we place upon ourselves, that we have every right to make use of as much of the universe as we possibly can, and that as we move

Stable or Unstable Aircraft

Indeed the Wrights' early opinion that aircraft should be inherently unstable became the consensus among aviators for several decades. The fighter aircraft of World War I were notoriously unstable and difficult to fly, but highly maneuverable. Learning to fly could be as dangerous (and possibly as heroic) as facing the enemy during the war, more British pilots died in training than in combat.14 And indeed with these aircraft matured a new cadre of skilled pilots, and a new breed of war hero, characterized as much by technical skill as by innate courage.15 Jerome Hunsaker, one of the great early aeronautical engineers, referred to the ''almost universal prejudice among accomplished fliers against so-called 'stable aeroplanes.'''16

The Radio Sun and Planets

On the morning of February 12, 1942, the German battle cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau passed undetected through the English Channel on a voyage from Brest in France to Kiel in Germany. The reason they sailed unmolested by British warplanes was that the British radar was being jammed by radio interference. J. S. Hey, a physicist who had learned something about newly invented radar at the outbreak of World War II, was assigned the task of investigating the jamming. The suspicion was that the Germans had come up with a device that could blind the British radar. A few weeks later widespread jamming again occurred and the military responded by going on extreme alert, yet no hostile action followed. Hey discovered that jamming had occurred only in the daytime, especially when the sun rose in the east and the radar antennas were pointing in its general direction. A check with the Royal Observatory' at Greenwich revealed that at the same time a large sunspot group was visible on the solar...

The Drawing Board and the Cockpit

Exemplifying the era's changes in flying and piloting was James, ''Jimmy'' Doolittle who would become a national hero in 1942 for leading the eponymous raid over Tokyo. The SETP honored him at their inaugural banquet in 1957, but not for this feat alone. Before World War II Doolittle had already made a name for himself in scientific aviation. Originally trained as a mining engineer, Doolittle joined the army during World War I and became a pilot, although he completed his training too late to see combat. He spent the 1920s experimenting with rapidly advancing aircraft, showing what they could do in long-distance flights. During that work, Doolittle observed a split between engineers and pilots. He found that ''engineers felt pilots were all a little crazy or else they wouldn't be pilots. The pilots felt . . . that all the engineers did was zip slide rules back and forth and come out with erroneous results and bad aircraft.'' Doolittle thought it would help ''to marry these two...

The Biggest Telescope of

George Hale did not live to see the completion of his last dream. He died of heart disease in Pasadena on February 21, 1938, at age 69. World War II interrupted construction of the Mount Palomar observatory, so the observatory did not open until 1948. Its magnificent 200-inch telescope, then the largest single-mirror reflector in the world and still the second-largest, was dedicated on June 3 of that year. To the surprise of no one, the telescope was named for George Ellery Hale.

Computational Astrophysics

In Newton's time, and in all ages until the fairly recent past, the computations of astronomers were carried out with pencil (or quill) and paper, with early mechanical calculating machines, and then about the time of World War II, with computational machines that predated the first computers. The postwar invention of the transistor began a revolution that has resulted in incredibly powerful computers sitting on the desktops of a huge number of people in this country. The abilities of these computers now outstrip most of the uses that average consumers have come up with so far. But one application that still stretches even today's best computers is computational modeling of systems of interest to astronomy and astrophysics.

Using the Sky as a Laboratory

The Wrights designed, built, and flew their own aircraft, as did many of the early aviators. In effect, the Wrights were their own test pilots, though the term did not exist in their day. In the decades before World War II, test pilots occupied a unique position between those who designed the machines and those who flew them. During the 1930s, the test pilots began to specialize corporate pilots, who tested aircraft coming off the production line of a manufacturer service test pilots, who tested aircraft and weapons in the military and research test pilots, who worked with research engineers developing the fundamental ideas and technologies of flight.

The United States space programme

After the Second World War, the United States conducted rocket development based on indigenous technology, and the new ideas coming from the German programme, involving von Braun. Inter-service rivalry contributed to the difficulties in achieving the first US satellite launch, which was mirrored by the divisions between different design bureaux in the Soviet Union, although there it was less costly. The Army developed the Redstone rocket, basically improving upon the A4, in the same way that the R series developed in the USSR. The Navy had its own programme based on the indigenous Viking.

Organizing for the Debus Davis Study

High-level agencies in Washington took a hand in the matter. On 16 June 1961 Roswell L. Gilpatric, Deputy Secretary of Defense, alerted the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force to the joint planning by NASA and the Department of Defense concerning all elements of the space program, including the extension of ground facilities. 8 He directed them to instruct commanders of national ranges and other officers in charge of space resources to lend their full support. At the Cape this responsibility fell to Gen. Leighton Davis. Montana-born, Davis had excelled at West Point as a student and instructor. After the entry of the United States into World War II, he had expressed dismay at the quality of the sighting equipment on the planes in his bomber command. The Army transferred him to research and development of gun and bomb sights at Wright Field in Ohio. Other R& D assignments followed, prior to his taking command of the Air Force Missile Test Center in May 1960.9

Karl Schwarzschild and Black Holes

A German astrophysicist, Karl Schwarzschild (Figure 1.11) of considerable renown, volunteered for military service on the outbreak of war in August 1914 (called the First World War). While on the Russian front, he obtained the first exact solution of Einstein's General Relativity. Schwarzschild volunteered for military service in the First World War and served in Belgium where he was put in charge of a weather station, France where he was assigned to an artillery unit and given the task of calculating missile trajectories, and then Russia.

About the Use of Ontology

Is both, but we should now pause a little longer on that answer. The reason for doing so is that the picture of sensible reality emerging from the most recent advances of science, particularly of cosmology and of biology, hinges on it. In terms of our guiding metaphor, we could say that we cannot really enjoy the glory of the Great Dance if our minds have no notion of who and what the dancers are. Is a human being nothing but a special association of electrons and nuclei Is a gigantic galaxy what really matters on the scale of the universe, so that a tiny planet like the earth is important only to us men, actors passing on the stage and then disappearing Science cannot tell directly how important something is, because it only tries to discover the nature of the physical world. But it can help us to see things in the right proportion, and to establish a foundation for a sensible assessment of that ontological question before possible answers are examined. Some of the social changes,...

The Birth of Computer Graphics

Increasing commercial and military air traffic following the Second World War demanded the development of a far more serious early use of computers and computer-generated graphics - those deployed by radar systems. Tasked by the US Air Force to develop a way to protect against air attacks from hostile powers, MIT's Lincoln Laboratory developed the SAGE (Semiautomatic Ground Environment) air defense system. SAGE used dozens of Whirlwind computers in a network of radar stations to plot blips on CRTs the blips represented incoming aircraft based on radar gathered data. Operators were able to apply a gun-shaped light pen to each blip to bring up additional text information about the target on-screen, such as its identification, airspeed, and direction. First developed in 1955, the system represented one of the first practical uses of computer graphics (Figure 1.9).

Electronic Stability and Supersonic Flight

Stability augmentation brought the esoteric, but rapidly growing world of feedback control into the realm of flight. During World War II, electrical engineers had begun to study a wide variety of machines under the category of ''feedback systems.'' These systems compare the ''desired'' output of a system with its ''actual'' output, subtracting them to derive an ''error signal.'' The error is then ''fed back'' into the input, inverted, so it drives the difference between ''desired'' and ''actual'' to zero. The system thus seems to pursue a ''goal'' of bringing the actual and desired states together. After the Second World War, aeronautical engineers began borrowing feedback techniques from electrical engineering. For example, the ''frequency response'' method introduced by Henrik Bode allowed one to study an amplifier's stability by breaking down its behavior into a series of oscillations of different frequencies. In 1948, engineer Walter Evans, at North American Aviation (the company...

From Battlefield to Mountaintop

Before he could take Hale up on his offer, however, the United States entered World War I. Deciding that patriotism was even more important than astronomy, Hubble enlisted in the army in May 1917, three days after he obtained his Ph.D. He took officer training and eventually was promoted to the rank of major. He went to France in September 1918, but the fighting ended before he saw battle.

Cost And Schedule Issues

Prior to the space race'', space flight technology was approximately equivalent to that of the aviation industry 100 years ago, which consisted of some hot air balloons, science fiction, and a couple of talented bicycle mechanics2 who proved that heavier-than-air flight by humans was possible. In the 1960s, space technology became more equivalent to the aviation industry of World War I - airplanes were used almost exclusively by governments. Commercial use of aircraft for cargo and passenger transport did not become widespread until after World War II.

Science and National Policy

Since the end of World War II in 1945, many countries have mounted major efforts to achieve nuclear weapons capability or more benignly to develop and deploy nuclear power sources. The U.S. federal government has expended billions of dollars annually for more than 30 years on its space program. The Japanese government has strongly encouraged the development of scientifically based industries as engines of economic progress. Many countries and international consortia of countries have invested very heavily in research at the most fundamental levels in the belief that in the long run the fruits of this research can be given practical application. Because these efforts involve very substantial amounts of money, there are continuing debates about values and priorities. A typical case is that of the SSC, the Superconducting Super Collider, which was intended as a site for very complex experiments probing the ultimate limits of the structure of matter. There was a nationwide competition...

JPL and Caltech Biting the Orange

Wrestled occasionally with the blurry boundary between lab and campus it also endured increasing questions in the 1960s about its association with nuclear weapons design at Livermore and Los Alamos. At Stanford, to take another example, physicists on campus maintained prickly relations with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, including squabbles over joint appointments, teaching privileges, and thesis supervision.20 In preparation for the orange report, JPL staff had visited several similar university labs for comparison the Applied Physics Lab at Johns Hopkins, Draper and Lincoln Labs at MIT, and Lawrence Livermore Lab under the University of California. They noted that staff at each lab expressed concern about their relation with the campus and that none seemed to have significantly higher interactions than did JPL with Caltech. They did perceive distance to be a general barrier to interaction any lab farther than walking distance from campus found collaboration difficult and...

Looking back in time Searching for the most distant galaxies

Esther Hu was born and raised in New York City. She is a second generation Chinese-American whose parents came to the US as students at the end of the Second World War. Like her sister Evelyn, Esther decided to be a scientist before attending college. Esther was educated in physics at MIT and earned her PhD in astrophysics at Princeton. She then became a research associate with the X-ray group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and then a postdoctoral fellow at the Space Telescope Science Institute. She is now a professor of astronomy at the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu. In the course of her career, Esther has studied successively more distant objects across the Universe using more and more sensitive telescopes and instruments. Despite her friendly and easy-going nature, Esther is as competitive as they come she presently holds the record for distant object detection. Esther enjoys reading, classical music, and ''living in a place as beautiful as...

Arnold Henry H Hap 18861950

Army Air Forces in World War II and the only air commander ever to attain the five-star rank of general of the armies. Arnold was especially interested in the development of sophisticated aerospace technology to give America an edge in air superiority, and consequently he helped foster the development of such innovations as jet aircraft, rocketry, rocket-assisted takeoff, and supersonic flight. After a lengthy career as an Army aviator and commander spanning the two world wars, he retired from active service in 1945 but continued to urge that the United States should develop a postwar deterrent force that included long-range ballistic missiles, developed from the V-2 rather than short-range guided missiles.1257 82 See guided missiles, postwar development.

Hereditary interest in geology

His father, Harrison Ashley Schmitt, was born in Mankato, Minnesota in 1896, and grew up in an area famous for the Farr St. Clair Fissure, which created one of the largest areas of natural hot springs in the world. He served with distinction in the Marine Corps during World War One and according to his son, this is when his father first became interested in geology. Post-war, he worked as chief geologist for the New Jersey Zinc Mining Company in Mexico and in the United States. He gained his doctorate in geology from the University of Minnesota in 1926 after thesis work in Mexico.

The Brilliant Dissenter

Who was this lone dissenter, arguing against putting a pilot in the X-15 Some unappreciated engineer resentful of the glamorous test pilots Some cost-sensitive bureaucrat One of the steely missile men in love with automatic controls No, the man who argued against a piloted X-15 was Clarence ''Kelly'' Johnson, legendary aircraft designer, chief engineer at Lockheed, and founder of its famous ''Skunk Works.'' Johnson had already designed or helped design such pilot favorites as the P-38 Lightning, one of the highest-performance aircraft of World War II the F-80 Shooting Star, America's first jet fighter and the F-104 Starfighter, which NACA itself would heavily use in the X-15 program. Johnson would go on to notch his belt with the U-2 spy plane, the SR-71 (designed in 1960 and still the fastest piloted aircraft ever built), and a host of other historic planes, some of which are still in use today. He had won, or would go on to win, nearly every major award in aviation, aeronautics, and...

The future of New Zealand Astronomy

Star brightness was used there soon after the Second World War (Thomsen 1950). But lack of resources prevented a fully-fledged research programme from being developed. Further study of meteors by radar was made at Canterbury in the 1950s and 60s. But only when Mt John Observatory was established with American help in the 1960s can we say that a firm base in observational astrophysics was established in New Zealand. By this time observatories specializing in astrophysics had already celebrated over 50 years or more of existence in many European countries and in North America, and the Commonwealth Solar Observatory on Mt Stromlo in Canberra, Australia, which was founded in 1924, has also provided a been developed into a strong centre for astrophysics. In this sense, New Zealand has had a late start in astrophysical research.

Interstellar Hydrogen

During the World War II a small group of astronomers in occupied Holland regularly gathered to discuss topics of scientific interest. It was at one such historic meeting that Henk van de Hulst reported that he had calculated that the neutral hydrogen atom should transmit a detectable radio signal. This meant that this important gas could be directly observed, but not quite yet because no one had a radio telescope or sensitive receiver with which to make a search. However, the Dutch scientists did know that pioneering radio astronomical work had been done in the United States before the war broke out and looming along their coastline were large dishes used as part of the German early warning radar system. As soon as the war ended, one of those dishes would be modified to serve as a radio telescope to search for the hydrogen signature originating between the stars.

The Sun Stars and Stellar XRay Astronomy 1011 Advances of Stellar XRay Astronomy

Hot plasmas with temperatures in excess of 1 MK radiate most of their energy at soft X-ray wavelengths, and soon after World War II, X-ray emission from the Sun was first detected using Geiger counters onboard rockets originally developed for warfare. Yet, the overall X-ray losses of the Sun are rather weak and less than 1 part in a million of its whole energy budget is emitted at X-ray wavelengths. Thus an extrapolation of the observed solar X-ray properties to stars at large led to rather pessimistic expectations as to the detectability of stellar coronae, and indeed, none of the first couple of hundreds of extrasolar X-ray sources detected in the sixties and seventies of the last century were normal stars. However, the introduction of soft X-ray imaging into X-ray astronomy, first with the Einstein Observatory (operated between 1978 and 1981) and later with EXOSAT (1983-1985) and ROSAT (1990-1998), has led to the detection of X-ray emission from many thousands of stars similar to...

Robert H Goddard 18821945

Goddard continued his rocket work during the 1920s and 1930s, anticipating much of the technology used by German rocketeers in World War II. In July 1929, he successfully launched the first rocket to carry a payload. The launch created a major disturbance, and local authorities ordered him to cease his rocket-flight experiments in Massachusetts. With the help of Charles Lindbergh, he moved his work to Roswell, New Mexico. There, undisturbed and well out of public view, Goddard conducted experiments that led to the development of steering devices for rockets, self-cooled rocket motors, power-driven fuel pumps, and other devices. During his lifetime, he registered 214 patents on various rockets and their components. Goddard offered to develop rockets for the military during World War II, but the U.S. government had little interest in the technology. Instead, the navy assigned Goddard to developing jet thrusters for

Edwardians In Space September

Today, Wells's stories read like eerie prophecies mechanised warfare is foretold in The War Of The Worlds (1898), aerial bombardment in The War In The Air (1908) and the tank in The Land Ironclads (1904). The Island Of Dr Moreau (1896) highlights bioengineering, while cable broadcasting gets a cameo in When The Sleeper Wakes (1899). His single most significant prophecy was nuclear warfare, depicted in The World Set Free (1914), in which Wells coined the phrase 'atom bomb'. He lived to see his fiction become fact, dying in 1946.

Hermann J Oberth 18941989

In 1912, Oberth entered the University of Munich to study medicine, but after being wounded in World War I, he turned his attention to astronautics. Near the end of the war, he tried to interest the German War Ministry in the development of a long-range military rocket, but the government rejected his proposal as fantasy. Undaunted, Oberth returned to the university and investigated the theoretical problems of rocketry. In 1922, he presented his doctoral dissertation on the theory of rocketry to the University of Heidelberg. Unfortunately, the university committee rejected his dissertation as too utopian. Still inspired by space travel, he revised this work and published it in 1923 as The Rocket into Planetary Space. This modest-sized book provided a thorough discussion of the major aspects of space travel, and its contents inspired many young German scientists and engineers, including Wernher von Braun, to explore rocketry. Oberth's work in the 1920s became the foundation for the...

Edwin Powell Hubble 18891953

Following military service in World War I, Hubble joined the staff at the Carnegie Institute's Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles. He remained affiliated with this observatory for the remainder of his life. Once at Mount Wilson, he resumed his careful investigation of nebulae. In 1923, he discovered a Cepheid variable star in the Andromeda nebula, now known as the Andromeda galaxy, or M31. A Cepheid variable is one of a group of important very bright, supergiant stars that pulsate periodically in brightness. By studying this Cepheid variable in M31, Hubble concluded that it belonged to a separate collection of stars far beyond the Milky Way galaxy. This important discovery provided observational evidence that galaxies existed beyond the Milky Way. The size of the known universe expanded by incredible proportions. Hubble served as a ballistics expert during World War II and remained an active researcher until his death on September...

Berkner Lloyd V 19051967

An influential figure in shaping American space policy in the 1950s and 1960s. Berkner received a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota and later attended George Washington University. Although initially he carried out research on the atmospheric propagation of radio waves, he rose to prominence as a scientific administrator following World War II. Berkner played a central role in the exchange of scientific information dur

BI1 Bereznyak Isayev

The Soviet Union's first high-speed rocket plane. Developed during World War II, it used a liquid-fueled engine built by Isayev with a thrust of 1.5 tons. Its maiden flight, following accidents in ground runs of the rocket engine, came on May 15, 1942, lasted three minutes and reached a speed of 400 km hr. Problems with corrosion by the acid fuels slowed testing. On its seventh flight, in March

Exhibit 40 Nearearth Objects Impacting The Environment

Since Project Icarus in the late 1960s, the preferred method for dealing with an NEO if it was on an impact course with our planet was to hit it with one or more nuclear weapons. In recent years, however, research into asteroids, including spacecraft missions to or past several asteroids, have challenged that approach. Small celestial bodies are less likely to be integral chunks of rocks than rubble piles'', an agglomeration of smaller objects loosely held together by gravity.

Site History And Development

In the post-World War II era, an international collaboration of researchers sponsored by the University of Denver flocked to Mt Evans and its Echo Lake facilities. This activity flourished into the 1960s when accelerators elsewhere began to eclipse the direct observation of cosmic rays from high-mountain sites. During this time, the Space Race and increasing interest in air pollution monitoring inspired the Denver Research Institute to propose a telescope for the Mt Evans site, in collaboration with local universities. The first telescope was an 0.6m Ritchey-Chretien telescope by Ealing-Beck completed in 1972. Funding for operations limited its use to studies of comets Kohoutek (1972) and Halley (1986). The site was nearly abandoned when a bequest to the University of Denver appeared in 1990 that included funds for a new mountaintop telescope and observatory.

Implications of Defense Programs

JPL remained from the days of army sponsorship, and Murray himself had worked for the air force. While perhaps 10 to 20 percent of lab staff did not themselves wish to work on military programs, only 5 percent at most opposed their presence in principle Most of our staff, and virtually all of our supervisors and managers, enthusiastically welcome DoD work.71 Caltech, for its part, had a tradition of defense-oriented leaders, dating back to Robert Millikan after Harold Brown left Caltech to become secretary of defense, the institute hired Goldberger, who had been a defense consultant since the 1950s and had helped to found the JASON group of scientific defense advisors. Caltech's trustees also provided a sympathetic forum the subcommittee on JPL included Ramo former Caltech president Lee Dubridge, another prominent defense advisor and former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. But the support of defense work by senior administrators and managers at JPL and Caltech also suggested a...

Dyna Soar and the Johnsville Tests

Wernher von Braun's early vision of spaceflight included scientists, engineers, physicians, and photographers, but not pilots. In this illustration by Fred Freeman the ship is on automatic pilot, monitored by the crew on the top deck. The commander sits in a cybernetic chair in the center of the top deck, reminiscent of a World War II fire-control system. Note the navigator on the top right taking star sightings, a prescient analog to the Apollo optical system. The figure on the top deck on the right is a caricature of von Braun, and the figure floating between the bottom decks is Willy Ley. (Von Braun and Ryan, Conquest of the Moon, 63. Reprinted by permission.) Wernher von Braun's early vision of spaceflight included scientists, engineers, physicians, and photographers, but not pilots. In this illustration by Fred Freeman the ship is on automatic pilot, monitored by the crew on the top deck. The commander sits in a cybernetic chair in the center of the top deck, reminiscent of a...

Nikita S Khrushchev 18941971

Following the carnage of World War II, he and other rising members of the Soviet leadership walked a political tightrope trying to please Joseph Stalin, the brutal Russian dictator who was famous for his bloody purges and palace intrigues. After Stalin's death on March 5, 1953, Khrushchev used his own peasant toughness and political skills to emerge from the en Khrushchev also pursued a very dangerous game of military brinkmanship with the United States by placing nuclear-armed intermediate-range ballistic missiles in Communist Cuba in 1962. His actions precipitated the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962, which brought the world to the very edge of nuclear warfare. Khrushchev badly underestimated the response of the United States and was forced to withdraw his missiles in a resounding political defeat.

Walter Elias Walt Disney 19011966

Legendary American motion-picture animator and producer Walt Disney introduced millions of people to the excitement of space travel. Disney was born on December 5, 1901, in Chicago, Illinois, and was raised on his family's farm near Marceline, Missouri. There he began his cartooning career by sketching farm animals. In 1917, the family returned to Chicago, where Disney attended high school, but evening art classes were his real interest. Without graduating from high school, he volunteered to serve as a Red Cross ambulance driver during World War I. After the war, Disney began producing advertising films in Kansas City, Missouri, and eventually turned to animation. Enjoying only limited success, he moved to Hollywood, California, in 1923. Five years later, he produced the first animated cartoon to use synchronized sound. This cartoon, called Steamboat Willie, introduced the world to a charming new cartoon character, Mickey Mouse. Soon Minnie Mouse, Pluto, Goofy, and Donald Duck joined...

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 19171963

Born on May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Massachusetts, John F. Kennedy graduated from Harvard University in 1940 and then served in the U.S. Navy during World War II. He was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 and won a seat in the U.S. Senate in the 1952 election. Kennedy narrowly defeated his Republican opponent, Richard M. Nixon, in the 1960 election to become the 35th president of the United States. When Kennedy made his decision, the United States had not yet successfully placed a human being in orbit around Earth. Kennedy's mandate galvanized the American space program and marshaled incredible levels of technical and fiscal resources. Science historians often compare NASA's Project Apollo to the Manhattan Project (the World War II atomic bomb program) or the construction of the Panama Canal in extent, complexity, and national expense. On July 20, 1969, two Apollo astronauts, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, stepped on the lunar surface and successfully...

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory CGRO

In an effort to cool down the heated nuclear arms race in the 1960s, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to stop performing atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Since these explosions produce large amounts of gamma rays, they could be detected by orbiting gamma ray detectors. To monitor compliance with the atmospheric test ban, the U.S. military launched some of these satellites and soon were detecting a gamma ray burst at the rate of about one a day. This observation triggered intense communications with the Soviet leadership, who steadfastly denied carrying out atmospheric tests. Indeed, it was soon determined that the bursts were not originating from nuclear explosions on the ground but were coming from some celestial source or sources. The second of the great observatories, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, has studied these sources in detail. The CGRO has helped to determine that so-called gamma ray bursts come from energetic activity originating in the farthest...

Kennedy and Competing with the Soviets

The second point from Kennedy's Cold War approach relevant to space policy is that in general he seems to have had no aversion to competing with the Soviets. After the Soviets broke the voluntary US-USSR-Great Britain moratorium observed since November 1958 and resumed testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere on 31 August 1961, McGeorge Bundy recorded, The President's patience is at an end. Bundy added that Kennedy said, The world is being subjected to threats and terror. We have to show both our friends and our own people that we are ready to meet our own needs in the face of these new Soviet acts.21 Part of this competitive dynamic involved Kennedy making it absolutely clear to Khrushchev that

Krafft A Ehricke 19171984

Krafft Ehricke was a dedicated space visionary who not only designed advanced rocket systems that greatly supported the first golden age of space exploration, but also addressed the important but often ignored social and cultural impacts of space technology. Born in Berlin, Germany, on March 24, 1917, Ehricke grew up in the political and economic turbulence of post-World War I Germany. By chance, at the age of 12, Ehricke saw Fritz Lang's 1929 motion picture The Woman in the Moon. This film introduced him to the concept of rockets and space travel, and Ehricke knew immediately what career he wanted to pursue. In the early 1930s, he was still too young to participate in the German Society for Space Travel (VfR), so he experimented in a self-constructed laboratory at home. During World War II, he worked on the German V-2 rocket program and, in 1942, obtained a degree in aeronautical engineering from the Technical University of Berlin. Near the end of World War II, Ehricke joined the...

The Rise and Decline of Defense Programs

Murray's successor as director of JPL would not have to worry about ignorance of classified work. In July 1982 Caltech named Lew Allen as director, effective October 15 (deputy director Charles Terhune served as acting director from July to October). A native small-town Texan, Allen had graduated from West Point in 1946 and served in the Strategic Air Command. He then obtained a PhD in nuclear physics at Illinois in 1954, under a new air force program aiming to produce technically trained officers. Allen's career rewarded the investment. After stints working on nuclear weapons design and effects for the air force, in 1961 Allen joined the defense research and engineering office of the DOD, where he focused on space technology. His subsequent exposure to the reconnaissance satellite program led to his appointment in 1973 as deputy director of the CIA and soon thereafter as head of the National Security Agency. After four years Allen returned to the air force as a four-star general, and...

Bush Vannevar 18901974

One of the most powerful members of the American scientific and technological elite to emerge during World War II. An aeronautical engineer on the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Bush lobbied to create and then headed the National Defense Research Committee in 1940 to oversee science and technology in the federal government. Later, its name was changed to the Office of Science Research and Development, and Bush used it as a means to build a powerful infrastructure for scientific research in support of the federal government. Although he went to the Carnegie Institution after the war, Bush remained a strong force in shaping postwar science and technology by serving on numerous federal advisory committees and preparing several influential reports.229

John Herschel Glenn Jr 1921

Born in Cambridge, Ohio, on July 18, 1921, John H. Glenn, Jr., attended Muskingum College in Ohio and graduated with a bachelor of science degree in engineering. He was commissioned as an officer in the U.S. Marine Corps in 1943 and served his country as a marine combat pilot in both World War II and the Korean War. Returning from Korea, Glenn attended Test Pilot School at the Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Maryland. In April 1959, he was selected as one of NASA's seven original Mercury Project astronauts. On February 20, 1962, he became the first American to orbit Earth as a modified Atlas-Mercury 6 rocket lifted his Friendship 7 space capsule into orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Glenn's flight an American first lasted 4 hours and 55 minutes, during which he circled Earth three times, observing everything from a dust storm in Africa to Australian

Quasi Stellar Objects QSOs and Quasars

Twenty years after Seyfert identified the first AGNs another and highly spectacular type was discovered but it would be a long time before they were recognized for what they were. Under the pressure of military needs during the Second World War especially for radar the equipment and techniques for receiving and transmitting radio waves had developed rapidly. After the end of the war, a great deal of surplus material was sold off, including large radio dishes. Academics returning to their universities after war service took advantage of this to set up radio telescopes for astronomical purposes, with the universities of Manchester (Jodrell Bank) and Cambridge (Mullard Radio Astronomy Laboratory) leading the way in the UK. Radio astronomy was the first of the new astronomies and has subsequently been followed by the opening up of the infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray and gamma-ray regions of the spectrum to astronomical observation. Whenever a new segment of the spectrum becomes available in...

Some Consequences of the Decision

1.8 billion FY 63, 3.7 billion and FY 64, 5.1 billion.114 Of the FY 62 figure, 50.7 percent was for human spaceflight, which increased to 65.8 percent of the dramatically increased FY 64 total.115 NASA employees went from 10,000 in 1960 to 34,000 in 1966, and NASA contractor employment grew tenfold from 37,000 to 377,000 in the same period.116 Former NASA historian Launius estimated at the peak of its employment, one in 50 Americans worked on some aspect of Project Apollo.117 Most estimates of the overall cost of the lunar-landing program are between 20-25 billion, a figure that translates to 91-114 billion in 1989 dollars.118 The lunar-excursion-module portion of the Apollo spacecraft cost literally 15 times its weight in gold.119 One assessment is that NASA's mobilization for Project Apollo was comparable, in relative scale, to that undertaken by the U.S. to fight World War II.120 NASA, by size of budget, was the fifth largest federal organization, after Defense Treasury...

Tragedy Cuts Short a Brilliant Career

German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild, who was born in 1873, made major contributions to knowledge about superdense objects and their effects on space and time. He became director of the Astrophysical Observatory in Potsdam in 1909. In 1915, while serving his country in World War I, he heard about Einstein's work on the theory of general relativity. Schwarzschild contacted Einstein and kept him informed about his own efforts to describe the geometry of spacetime around a superdense object occupying a single point, or singularity. Among Schwarzschild's mathematical discoveries was that the singularity would be separated from the event horizon by a certain distance, which scientists later named the Schwarzschild radius in his honor. Tragically, he contracted a skin disease while in the military and grew gravely ill. Einstein presented his colleague's groundbreaking ideas to the scientific community only months before Schwarzschild died in May 1916 at the age of forty-two.

Astronomy and Society

Hen asked to comment on the interplay between astronomy and society, many people might pick examples related to a dominant post-World War II phenomenon the space race. The United States and the Soviet Union spent considerable time and money trying to beat one another to significant milestones in space the first satellite to orbit the Earth, the first animal to live in space, the first man or woman to orbit the Earth, the first person to land on the moon. While these milestones represent profound technical achievements, they have relatively little to do with astronomy. Certainly, the technology associated with getting humans into orbit has also gotten instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit, but the same technology has gotten communications satellites and spy satellites into orbit as well. No one believes, of course, that these latter technologies were developed for astronomers. Astronomical discovery has also been used to justify projects like the Apollo missions to the...

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Jansky noted that during the solar eclipse on 1932 August 31, the intensity of the waves did not decrease, as it would have done if the radio emission came from the Sun. Also, the hiss was strongest along the galactic plane, especially at a right ascension of around 18h, in Sagittarius - the likely centre of the milky way already identified by Harlow shapley and Jan oort. Janksy concluded that giant ionized clouds of interstellar matter in the Milky Way were producing the static, marking the birth of the new science of radio astronomy. Although this made the front page of the New York Times, there was little interest from the scientific community. Jansky himself failed to see the potential of his discovery. It was taken up, initially single-handedly, by Grote reber, and only after World War II did radio astronomy really take off. To honour Jansky, the IAU in 1973 adopted his name for the unit of flux density of extraterrestrial radio emissions.

New Eyes on the Universe

Furthermore, he had exploited it to the limit of his equipment facilities. If greater progress were to be made it would be necessary to construct new and different equipment especially designed to measure the cosmic static. Reber decided to build a parabolic reflector in his backyard. He used sheet metal for the 31-foot (9-m) diameter dish and screwed it to 72 wooden rafters cut to shape. He cut, drilled, and painted the whole thing and completed the work in four months at a cost of 4,000 of his own money. The world's first radio telescope (see photo below) opened its metallic eye in September 1937. By 1940, Reber had confirmed that Jansky's radio source was in Sagittarius, the center of the Milky Way. From 1937 until the end of World War II, Reber (who received a Bruce Medal see page 249 in 1962) was the world's only active radio astronomer. Corning Glassware of New York cast the 200-inch (508-cm) mirror out of molten Pyrex in 1934. The image shows two people standing on the original...

Communications satellite

The possibility of using artificial satellites for radio communications over global distances had been discussed before World War II, but the modern concept dates from a 1945 Wireless World article by Arthur C. Clarke.50 Clarke envisioned three relay stations in geostationary orbit by means of which a message could be sent from any point on Earth and relayed from space to any other point on the surface. As an application of such a system, Clarke suggested direct broadcast TV a remarkably advanced idea, given that television was still in its infancy and it was not yet known whether radio signals could penetrate the ionosphere. The concept of the geostationary orbit had been discussed earlier by Herman Noordung, but Clarke gave the first detailed technical exposition of satellite communications. His vision was realized through the pioneering efforts of such scientists as John Pierce of Bell Labs, the head of the Telstar program and a coinventor of the traveling wave tube amplifier, and...

Dynamics of artificial Earth satellites

Since October 4th, 1957, many hundreds of artificial satellites have been placed in orbit about the Earth. We have seen (section 13.3) that Newton himself showed that if the projectile was given a sufficient velocity outside the Earth's atmosphere, it would become a satellite of the Earth. But it was only by the development of the rocket during and after the Second World War that a means was provided of imparting to a payload of instruments the velocity necessary to keep it in orbit.

Entry probes communication basics

The frequencies used for space communication lie in bands coordinated by the ITU (the International Telecommunication Union, a branch of the United Nations). The designation of the wavebands generally derives from radar development in World War 2 in the UK and Germany (Table 10.1).

TEL15 Spacewatch 09meter telescope

In 1997 the previously obscure field of gamma-ray burst astronomy hit the big time. Short bursts of gamma-rays, which are very energetic photons (more energetic than X-rays), were discovered by defense satellites in the late 1960s. The satellites were looking for exploding nuclear weapons, so you can probably imagine the tense atmosphere in the control room when the first gamma-ray burst (GRB) was found. It was rapidly discovered that these were not coming from the Earth, and later shown that they did not appear to be associated with any object in the solar system. People generally assumed that they were related to explosions on neutron stars or perhaps white dwarfs, but they typically lasted a few seconds or tens of seconds, were totally unpredictable in their location and were not very frequent (about one a month or so), so they were difficult to study. People did look for counterparts in visible light and radio waves, but nothing was ever seen. The positions provided by the...

Crossfield Albert Scott 1921

A test pilot of the early X-planes and the first human to fly at twice the speed of sound (Mach 2). Crossfield learned to fly with the Navy during World War II and became an aeronautical research pilot with NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) in 1950, flying the X-1 as well as the Douglas Skyrocket (D558-II) and other experimental jets. He was the chief engineering test pilot for North American Aviation (1955-1961). In 1953, he achieved Mach 2 in a Skyrocket, and on the first powered flight of the X-15 in 1959 reached Mach 2.11 and an altitude of 15,953 m.67

Flash Gordon and War of the Worlds

Tion with spark-spewing spaceships engaged in dogfights and attacks on alien monsters. With men such as Robert Goddard and his very real rockets that were featured in the newspapers and promoted by famous aviator Charles Lindbergh, such a future seemed very believable and very near. Thus, the public was fooled into thinking that Martians were invading on Halloween in 1938 when Orson Welles (1915-85) broadcast a radio version of H. G. Wells's (1886-1946) War of the Worlds. Less than a year later, a real invasion, of humans against humans, would start a world war that would kill millions and include real rockets and nuclear bombs.

Debus Kurt H 19081983

An important member of Wernher von Braun's V-2 (see V weapons) development team who subsequently supervised rocket launchings in the United States. Debus earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering (1933), and an M.S. (1935) and a Ph.D. (1939) in electrical engineering, all from the Technical University of Darmstadt, before being appointed an assistant professor there. During World War II he became an experimental engineer at the V-2 test stand at Peenem nde, rising to become superintendent of the test stand and the test firing stand for the rocket. In 1945, he came to the United States with a group of engineers and scientists headed by von Braun. From 1945 to 1950, the group worked at Fort Bliss, Texas, and then moved to the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. From 1952 to 1960, Debus was chief of the missile firing laboratory of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA). In this position, he was located at Cape Canaveral, where he supervised the launching of the first ballistic...

DeFrance Smith J 18961985

An aeronautical engineer who played a major role in wind tunnel design and experimentation before and during the birth of the Space Age. DeFrance was a military aviator with the Army's 139th Aero Squadron during World War I, then earned a B.S. in aeronautical engineering from the University of Michigan in 1922 before beginning a career with NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics). He worked in the flight research section at Langley Aeronautical Laboratory and designed its 9 x 18 m wind tunnel, completed in 1931 and the largest in existence at that time. He directed the research carried out in that tunnel and designed others before becoming director of the new Ames Aeronautical Laboratory in 1940, a position in which he remained until his retirement in 1965. During his time at Ames, the center built 19 major wind tunnels and conducted extensive flight research, including the blunt-body research necessary for returning spacecraft from orbit without burning up.134' 144

Sample of Working Level Difficulties

The main US launch facility was at Cape Canaveral on Florida's east coast the many and diverse Air Force facilities, including tracking stations, associated with the Florida range were collectively termed the Atlantic Missile Range and later the Eastern Test Range (ETR). The range and its support components had been developed after World War II primarily by the Air Force, which operated them for all agencies who used them. When Kennedy tasked NASA with Project Apollo, NASA knew it would have to assume a much greater role at the Cape because of the huge size of the Saturn family of boosters required to take three humans to the moon and back. One historian explained that if all stages of the Saturn V were to explode simultaneously, The force of the detonation would approach that of a small atomic bomb.147 This being the case, NASA would require a large amount of undeveloped land near Cape Canaveral to construct its own separate launch facilities for Apollo. In the meantime, it would...

Space Astronomy Basics

The observation in bands other than the visible, and the development of space observatories has followed the overall progresses in technology. A good review of the advances achieved in the second half of the last century can be found in 20 . For example, radio-astronomy started entering mainstream astronomy in the late forties, immediately after the development of radar during the 2nd World War. Also note that Karl Jansky did his work in the 1930s. Then, the skies began to be investigated at Infrared (IR) and millimeter wavelengths with the launch of the first high-altitude satellites, between 1960 and 1970, an epoch that also saw the infancy of X-ray astronomy. Almost all the electromagnetic spectrum, except for a small portion of the Far Infrared (FIR), was then accessible by 1980. Finally, by 1990, the advent of the ISO satellite (see below) opened the last window.

Primary Cosmic Radiation

An excellent historic review of the discovery of the cosmic radiation by Victor Hess (Hess, 1912) and of the great efforts that followed in the years until the beginning of world war II, including the ionization measurements in the atmosphere to an altitude of 16 km by Piccard during his spectacular first manned stratospheric balloon flight in 1931 (Piccard and Cosyns, 1932) is given by Eugster and Hess (1940). It must be remembered that at that time essentially nothing was known of the world of particle physics. The significant progress that was made in cosmic ray research in the period that followed until the late fifties was summarized by Peters (1959).

Doolittle James Jimmy Harold 18961993

A longtime aviation promoter, air racer, U.S. Air Force officer, and advocate of aerospace research and development. Doolittle served with the Army Air Corps (1917-1930), then as manager of the aviation section for Shell Oil (1930-1940). In World War II, he won fame for leading the April 1942 bombing of Tokyo, and then as commander of a succession of air units in Africa, the Pacific, and Europe. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1944. After the war, he was a member of the Air Force's Scientific Advisory Board and the President's Sci

Dornberger Walter 18951980

Wernher von Braun's military superior during the German rocket development program of World War II. He oversaw the effort at Peenem nde to build the V-2, fostering internal communication and successfully advocating the program to officials in the German army. He also assembled the team of talented engineers under von Braun's direction and provided the funding and staff organization needed to complete the project. After World War II, Dornberger was brought to the United States as part of Operation Paperclip and helped develop ballistic missiles for the Department of Defense. He also worked for Bell Aircraft for several years, developing hardware for Project BOMI, a rocket-powered space plane.33, 81

Educating tomorrows macromanagers

The emergence of macromanagement with the onset of World War II, followed by the Space Race between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., eclipsed the era of individual Big Thinkers, more or less. New management was needed for macro or mega projects Some of their well-known defining characteristics are (1) complex and trying multi-scale engineering, geographical, and other management problems that must be solved even before the megaproject is begun (2) significant public and private commitments are necessary, both in terms of financial and societal dedication (3) sometimes solving scientific and operational problems of inordinate complexity are essential if favourable outcomes are to be realized (4) macro-projects usually impact the planetary biosphere or the Earth's human-inhabited volume. As Geoffrey Dobbs noted in his book in the 1950s, planning implies control and the stealing of the best choices. (Source Richard Brooke Cathcart, Macroengineering Its History and Future on The Internet...

Dryden Hugh Latimer 18981965

An aerodynamicist and career civil servant who played a prominent role in American aerospace developments after World War II. Dryden graduated from high school at the remarkably young age of 14 and earned an A.B. from Johns Hopkins University at age 17. Three years later, in 1918, he was awarded a Ph.D. in physics and mathematics from the same institution even though he had been employed fUll-time in the National Bureau of Standards since June 1918. His career at the Bureau, which lasted until 1947, was devoted to studying airflow, turbulence, and particularly the problems of boundary layers of air next to moving objects. The work that he carried out in the 1920s measuring turbulence in wind tunnels facilitated research by NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) that led to the laminar flow wings used in the P-51 Mustang and other World War II aircraft. From the mid-1920s to 1947, Dryden's publications became essential reading for aerodynamicists around the world. During...

Durant Frederick Clark III 1916

An American rocket pioneer who was heavily involved in the development of missiles and space launch vehicles between the end of World War II and the mid-1960s. He worked for several aerospace organizations, including Bell Aircraft Corporation, Everett Research Lab, the Naval Air Rocket Test Station, and the Maynard Ordnance Test Station. Later, he became the director of astronautics for the National Air and Space Museum and served as an officer for several spaceflight organizations, including the American Rocket Society (president, 1953), the International Astronautical Federation (president, 1953-1956), and the National Space Club (governor, 1961). Since his retirement, Durant has represented the interests of a number of leading astronomical and space artists and is the author, with Ron Miller, of The Art of Chesley Bonestell (2001).

Birth of the Space Shuttle

Albert Scott Crossfield (1921-2006) was widely viewed as America's top test pilot - the man who often took experimental aircraft like the X-15 into the sky for the first time. After serving as a pilot and flight instructor during the Second World War, he joined NACA in 1950 but left to work for North American Aviation in 1955. In the late 1950s, he and several of his colleagues were briefly considered as pilots for a manned spaceflight.

Why Do We Have Common Sense Rather Than Scientific Sense

I must admit that such thoughts about mass destruction made me question the higher intelligence idea. If that intelligence was really higher, it clearly wouldn't allow us to use the bomb again. But if we believed that and therefore didn't keep a supply of bombs, could we really trust the other side not to use them Most people thought not, so the stockpiles of nuclear weapons grew. Trying to retain my own belief in a higher power, I reasoned that perhaps the Cold War was a test to see if we were truly ready to have real insights into nature. You can see how convoluted such thinking becomes. Remove the higher intelligence from the mix and the same reality becomes much easier to explain we had unlocked some of the secrets of nature, and their potential for destruction was forcing us, the human race, to grow up. I am not advocating that we all go out and learn everything about science or even about one field, such as astronomy. There is a big difference between such an unrealistic...

Lighting up for a mate or a meal

The emission of light by living creatures is often (though not always) based on the oxidation of an organic material, a luciferin, in the presence of an enzyme (a biological catalyst) known as a lu-ciferase. There are a number of luciferins found among the various bioluminescent species, and each one requires a specific luciferase to generate light. This conversion of chemical energy to light is extremely efficient virtually no heat is produced in the process. The names of these chemicals are derived from the Latin for 'light bearer'. (The name 'Lucifer' has been applied both to a fallen angel and to matches manufactured in Britain about a century ago and immortalized in a line of a First World War song.)

Synthesis of the Elements

As part of a British war committee on radar in 1944, Fred Hoyle (see photo opposite) went to Washington, D.C., to confer with his American colleagues. After the meeting in D.C., Hoyle went to Mount Wilson where Baade provided him with his latest information on supernovae. While waiting in Montreal, Canada, to catch a plane back to England, Hoyle met with men working on the British nuclear-bomb project. Combining what I learned with my speculations about implosion being relevant to the plutonium bomb, I wondered if a supernova might not be like a nuclear weapon, with implosion as the cause of instability, leading

Astronomical Peace Dividend

Wernher von Braun led the German rocket team who developed the deadly V-2 long-range missile during World War II. After the war, he became a champion of the U.S. space program, the first director of the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center, and the genius behind the Saturn rocket that first took men to the Moon. Wernher von Braun (shown in this undated photo) built the first rocket to reach space, though it was used as a weapon in World War II. He immigrated to the United States and built the Saturn V that took the first men to the Moon. (U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command) Wernher von Braun (shown in this undated photo) built the first rocket to reach space, though it was used as a weapon in World War II. He immigrated to the United States and built the Saturn V that took the first men to the Moon. (U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command)

The Sun and Arthur Eddington

Shortly after taking up his post at Cambridge, World War I broke out. Coming from a Quaker tradition and, as a conscientious objector, he avoided active war service and was able to continue his research at Cambridge during the war years of 1914-18. In 1920, Arthur Eddington was the first to suggest that stars obtained their energy from nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium.

Apollo Astronauts at KSC

The veteran astronauts were able to get one of their favorite pad men of Mercury and Gemini days, Gunter Wendt, transferred to Apollo. Gunter, a former Luftwaffe flight engineer, had emigrated to Missouri, where his father lived, after World War II. He had worked as a mechanic until he gained his citizenship papers and then joined McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. Sent to Florida, he had served on

Aristocratic Heritage

Wernher was born during a period of unrest in his country. By the time he was two, World War I broke out. It did not end until Germany's defeat in 1918. In an attempt to rebuild their country, Germans did away with the traditional autocratic form of rule in favor of a democracy known as the Weimar Republic. When Wirsitz was given to Poland in 1920, the von Brauns moved to Berlin. At this time, Berlin was known as a gathering place for famous scientific greats such as Albert Einstein (1879-1955), Max Planck (1858-1947), and Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961), who would assemble for lectures and to share knowledge.

The Dawn of the Space

Astronomers and space scientists of the 1950s continued to reap the benefits of technology that was developed during World War II. As sciencefiction readers imagined exploring space through books such as Ray Bradbury's (1920- ) Martian Chronicles (1950) and Robert Heinlein's (1907-88) Starship Troopers (1959), the Soviet Union and the United States developed intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and used them to send the first satellites and animals into space. The beginning of the space age is the major topic of this chapter, from the development of the rockets to the first scientific investigations of the effects of space on materials and biology.

The Microwave Background

The story begins before World War II, when the physicist George Gamow, interested in explaining how the various elements came to be formed, hypothesized that the universe started as a fireball in which the elements were cooked up. Much later, Robert Dicke and his colleagues at Princeton University were planning observations to search for evidence to indicate whether we live in an oscillating universe that may have gone through a hot phase. Penzias and Wilson, meanwhile, were doing engineering work with a very sensitive radio antenna at Bell Laboratories.

Semaphores for optical telegraphy

Although long-distance mechanical semaphore communication had been discarded well before the end of the 19th century, its little brother lasted well into the twentieth for naval and military communications. This form of semaphore used a pair of hand-held flags, usually with two bright and contrasting colours. The British army used it at the start of the First World War, but so many signallers were killed by enemy snipers that semaphore from the trenches had been abandoned by 1916. However, Lord Baden-Powell, the Chief Scout, continued to regard hand semaphore as a useful skill for members of the scout movement. Competence in semaphore was required to obtain the Figure 8.7. Flag positions for semaphore. The 28 flag combinations used by the Royal Navy in the First World War are presented here systematically. They did not exactly match alphabetical order, J and Y being anomalous. Flags were usually coloured red and yellow.

Approving the MOLCanceling Dynasoar

Not overtly state on the flight back to Washington, DC, that he had decided to terminate the X-20, I knew damn well he had and justified it on the basis that we had the Gemini pro-gram.108 As Houchin said concerning McNamara's demand that Air Force officers supply specific information relating to the Dynasoar's military applications For their answers to be useful, the secretary needed to be listening.109 Third, two of the missions the Air Force had concluded Dynasoar could fulfill were as a delivery platform for nuclear weapons and as a satellite interceptor inspector neutralizer. However, with the adoption of UN General Assembly Resolution No. 1884 (see chap. 5) which led to the Declaration for the Legal Principles for the Use of Outer Space, which renounced the stationing of mass destruction in space, these two potential X-20 roles disappeared. While its third, specific possible mission reconnaissance was still viable in the USAF's opinion, the NRO already had operational versions...

The relative luminosities of a star and planet

Observing directly such exoplanets requires detecting the weak light which they receive from their parent star and partially reflect toward the observer. Their thermal emission is also potentially detectable in the infrared. Other possible forms of light emission, caused by fluorescence, auroral or thunderstorm activity and bioluminescence are expected to be much fainter if present at all. Somewhat indirect biological emissions, such as laser beams emitted toward the Earth, light pollution, or the brief flashes from an exoplanetary nuclear war, could be much brighter, but of shorter duration.

Box 171 Bohrs model and the spectroscopic laws of Kirchhoff

Bohr was appointed professor of theoretical physics at Copenhagen in 1919. A special institute was founded to further his research it became one of the leading centers of the study of atomic physics, a place where researchers from different parts of the world could meet, not always easy in the post-World War I atmosphere.1

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