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Figure 3.46 Comparison of the absolute differential muon momentum spectra obtained by the experiments DEIS and MUTRON at a zenith angle of 89 . The ordinate is multiplied by the momentum to the third power. All corrections are included (Matsuno et al., 1984). 10 10 10 10 Muon Momentum GeV c Figure 3.46 Comparison of the absolute differential muon momentum spectra obtained by the experiments DEIS and MUTRON at a zenith angle of 89 . The ordinate is multiplied by the momentum to the third power....

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Figure 5.23 Absolute differential proton spectrum determined with the BESS-98 instrument (Sanuki et al., 1999 Nozaki, 2000) and earlier spectra obtained by other authors as specified below. The solid curve, C, is the assumed primary proton spectrum used by Honda et al. (1995) to compute the neutrino flux, discussed in Chapter 4, Section 4.5 Sanuki et al. (1999), BESS-98 Barbiellini et al. (1997), CAPRICE-94 A Papini et al. (1993) MASS-89 o Webber et al. (1987) x Seo et al. (1991) LEAP o Menn et...

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Figure 1.20 Relation between zenith angle and atmospheric thickness or column density at sea level for the curved Earth. 3 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Zenith Angle, e Degrees Figure 1.20 Relation between zenith angle and atmospheric thickness or column density at sea level for the curved Earth. 1.8 Geomagnetic and Heliospheric Effects 1.8.1 East-West, Latitude and Longitude Effects Cosmic ray fluxes and spectra from eastern and western directions are different up to energies of about 100 GeV,...

Cosmic Ray Cutoff Terminology

The study of cosmic ray access to locations within the geomagnetic field has greatly evolved over the past fifty years. Results obtained from theoretical investigations concerning this question have been instrumental in aiding the interpretation of a wide range of experimentally observed phenomena. These studies have ranged from examinations of the aurora, through attempts to account for the observed directional asymmetries detected in the primary and secondary cosmic ray fluxes, particularly...

Info

The quoted errors are a combination of statistical and systematic errors. The quoted errors are a combination of statistical and systematic errors. gin. These particles are referred to as reentrant albedos (RA). On the other hand, particles having energies larger than the corresponding cutoff rigidity will not be trapped in the geomagnetic field. Since the source of reentrant albedo is the splash albedo below the geomagnetic threshold rigidity, fluxes due to splash and reentrant albedos over a...

Introduction

The combined effects of the magnetic fields of the Sun and the Earth, and the solar wind form a highly complex electromagnetic configuration that influences the propagation of the cosmic radiation as it enters the heliosphere and magnetosphere, and approaches the Earth. We have excellent knowledge of the geomagnetic field and detailed data of large portions of the magnetic field in the magnetosphere. However, both field components are superimposed and time dependent, and both can be subject to...

Geomagnetic and Magnetospheric Fields

At the surface of the Earth the magnetic field varies between 30 fxT (0.3 G) and 60 iT (0.6 G), depending on the geographic location (or geomagnetic latitude). Some details concerning the properties of the geomagnetic field, such as the geomagnetic cutoff, are discussed in Chapter 1 and references to specific literature are listed there. The magnetic field measured on Earth or in the atmosphere is the result of the superposition of the purely geomagnetic field, which itself is not homogeneous...

Ionospheric Effects

The interaction between the solar wind and the geomagnetic field determine shape and properties of the magnetosphere. Disturbances and irregularities in the steady flow of the solar wind due to solar activity affect the shape of the magnetosphere and influence the cutoff conditions. As a consequence energetic solar particles, mostly protons but also heavier nuclei and electrons, may have easier access at times to the inner magnetosphere and can reach the Earth. The arrival of radiation...

Cosmic Rays Underground Underwater and Under

Cosmic ray particles which penetrate the atmosphere and enter the Earth's crust or its oceans lose energy by the same processes while propagating in these media as in the air. However, the situation changes dramatically for unstable particles due to the much higher density of these media as compared to air. At a given kinetic energy the likelihood for an unstable particle such as a pion or kaon to interact rather than decay is much higher when propagating in a dense medium such as earth, rock,...

Antinucleons Antinuclei

Since the discovery of the antiproton (p) at the Bevatron accelerator by Chamberlain et al. (1955), the existence of antinucleons in the cosmic radiation had been expected on theoretical grounds. Evidence for the existence of antiprotons in the primary cosmic radiation was delivered by Golden and collaborators in a balloon-borne experiment June 21-22, 1979, launched from Palestine, Texas (Golden et al., 1978, 1979a and 1979b). The instrument consisted of a superconducting magnet spectrometer...

Solar Diurnal Variations

For many years the cosmic ray intensity measured on Earth has been observed to undergo a periodic variation with a periodicity of one solar day. This solar diurnal variation is approximately sinusoidal and has a maximum soon after noon, local time, as shown in Fig. 6.5. It reflects the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field with the cosmic radiation. The typical amplitude of the variation is about 0.3 with respect to the mean for the nucleonic and 0.1 for the muonic...

Optical Attenuation in

The optical attenuation of light in bubble-free laboratory ice was studied by Warren (1984). He found for the attenuation length a value of 25 m at 470 nm. In-situ measurements in Greenland ice at a depth of 217 m made by the AMANDA (Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array) collaboration yielded an attenuation length of 18 m (Lowder et al., 1991a and 1991b Barwick et al., 1992). This work was continued at different depths in the Antarctic ice cap at the South Pole by the same collaboration...

Vertical Development in the Atmosphere

As a consequence of the different processes discussed above, the particle flux in the atmosphere increases with increasing atmospheric depth, X, reaching a maximum in the first 100 g cm2, then decreases continuously due to energy loss, absorption and decay processes. This maximum was first discovered by Pfotzer at a height of about 20 km and is called Pfotzer maximum (Pfotzer, 1936a and 1936b). Figure 1.11 shows the results of Pfotzer's experiment. Curve A is from his original publication...

Homestake Chlorine Detector and Data

The Homestake chlorine based detector is the first and oldest major solar neutrino experiment. It is located in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, South Dakota (USA), at a depth of 1480 m (4400 hg cm2 or 4100 m w.e.) and consists of 3.8-105 liters or 615 tons of perchloroethylene (C2CI4) (Davis et al., 1968). Detection of neutrinos is based on the neutrino capture reaction, 37Cl( e, e )37Ar Eth 814 keV . (6.13) The number of 37C1 target atoms in the tank is 2.18-1030. The threshold for the reaction...

Depth Intensity Relations and Data

The intensity of muons as a function of depth underground can be calculated from our knowledge of the sea level muon spectrum and the physics of muon propagation and interactions in rock or other media, provided that we know the relevant physical parameters of these media. The basic equations to carry out such calculations are summarized in Section 4.2. Additional details for further study of the subject can be found in the references listed there. At a vertical depth, X, underground the...

Theoretical Neutrino Spectra and Data

General Comments on Computational Methods In principle the energy spectra of atmospheric neutrinos and their antiparti-cles can be calculated from the primary cosmic ray spectrum on top of the atmosphere with the help of a Monte Carlo simulation or analytically. Apart from uncertainties concerning the particle physics aspects the accuracy of this method hinges on our knowledge of the primary spectrum and the varying and complex heliospheric, magnetospheric and geomagnetic cutoff conditions. The...