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Antonioli, F. Arneodo, L. Bergamasco, M. Bertaina, C. Castagnoli, A. Castellina, A. Chiavassa, G. Cini Castagnoli, B. D'Ettorre Piazzoli, G. Di Sciascio, W. Fulgione, P. Galeotti, P.L. Ghia, M. Iacovacci, G. Mannocchi, C. Morello, G. Navarra, O. Saavedra, G.C. Trinchero, P. Vallania, S. Vernetto, C. Vigorito, S. Valchierotti Annual Report 2000, INFN-LNGS Laboratorio Nationale del Gran Sasso, R. Antolini ed., L'Aquila, Italy (2001) (in print). Aguirre, C. Resumen...

Antinucleons Antinuclei

Since the discovery of the antiproton (p) at the Bevatron accelerator by Chamberlain et al. (1955), the existence of antinucleons in the cosmic radiation had been expected on theoretical grounds. Evidence for the existence of antiprotons in the primary cosmic radiation was delivered by Golden and collaborators in a balloon-borne experiment June 21-22, 1979, launched from Palestine, Texas (Golden et al., 1978, 1979a and 1979b). The instrument consisted of a superconducting magnet spectrometer...

Solar Diurnal Variations

For many years the cosmic ray intensity measured on Earth has been observed to undergo a periodic variation with a periodicity of one solar day. This solar diurnal variation is approximately sinusoidal and has a maximum soon after noon, local time, as shown in Fig. 6.5. It reflects the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field with the cosmic radiation. The typical amplitude of the variation is about 0.3 with respect to the mean for the nucleonic and 0.1 for the muonic...

Optical Attenuation in

The optical attenuation of light in bubble-free laboratory ice was studied by Warren (1984). He found for the attenuation length a value of 25 m at 470 nm. In-situ measurements in Greenland ice at a depth of 217 m made by the AMANDA (Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array) collaboration yielded an attenuation length of 18 m (Lowder et al., 1991a and 1991b Barwick et al., 1992). This work was continued at different depths in the Antarctic ice cap at the South Pole by the same collaboration...

Vertical Development in the Atmosphere

As a consequence of the different processes discussed above, the particle flux in the atmosphere increases with increasing atmospheric depth, X, reaching a maximum in the first 100 g cm2, then decreases continuously due to energy loss, absorption and decay processes. This maximum was first discovered by Pfotzer at a height of about 20 km and is called Pfotzer maximum (Pfotzer, 1936a and 1936b). Figure 1.11 shows the results of Pfotzer's experiment. Curve A is from his original publication...

Homestake Chlorine Detector and Data

The Homestake chlorine based detector is the first and oldest major solar neutrino experiment. It is located in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, South Dakota (USA), at a depth of 1480 m (4400 hg cm2 or 4100 m w.e.) and consists of 3.8-105 liters or 615 tons of perchloroethylene (C2CI4) (Davis et al., 1968). Detection of neutrinos is based on the neutrino capture reaction, 37Cl( e, e )37Ar Eth 814 keV . (6.13) The number of 37C1 target atoms in the tank is 2.18-1030. The threshold for the reaction...

Depth Intensity Relations and Data

The intensity of muons as a function of depth underground can be calculated from our knowledge of the sea level muon spectrum and the physics of muon propagation and interactions in rock or other media, provided that we know the relevant physical parameters of these media. The basic equations to carry out such calculations are summarized in Section 4.2. Additional details for further study of the subject can be found in the references listed there. At a vertical depth, X, underground the...

Theoretical Neutrino Spectra and Data

General Comments on Computational Methods In principle the energy spectra of atmospheric neutrinos and their antiparti-cles can be calculated from the primary cosmic ray spectrum on top of the atmosphere with the help of a Monte Carlo simulation or analytically. Apart from uncertainties concerning the particle physics aspects the accuracy of this method hinges on our knowledge of the primary spectrum and the varying and complex heliospheric, magnetospheric and geomagnetic cutoff conditions. The...